Click on the item of interest:
The Koasek • The Identity of the St. Francis Indians • The History of Our Corn
Mission des Loupes • The Koasek Were Not the Same as the Odanak
Bethlehem, NH Indians • The Coos (Pine Tree Place) • Louis Annance - Famous Trapper and Guide
Resources for Teachers and Learners
by Chief Nancy Millette Doucet
The Koasek Abenaki
of the KOAS are a State-of-Vermont-recognized tribe
with their headquarters in Newbury. Vermont. We have spent over 30 years documenting
our history in Haverhill and Newbury and 20 years to pass legislation
to grant us legal status as a recognized tribe.
Our application for recognition included hundreds of pages of documented
history showing that our people and families have been here consistently for
over 300 years. It also included hundreds of pages of genealogy showing our people are
from here and come from Indians of the Koas ( Koas is the traditional
spelling for the meadows that come from the Jesuits who built the
Mission Des Loupes of the Koas on the Newbury side of the meadows).
burial grounds are in Haverhill. The village spans both sides of the
river. AND the Koasek Abenaki never left. There were winter villages
for the Koasek. Other tribes came here to trade and visit however the
the Koasek have always been here. There are over 200 families in this
We have worked with both NH and VT
and anthropologists as well as
professors from many colleges on documenting our true history here.
Following is a chapter on the Cowassucks
from a book that is no longer in print:
THE IDENTITY OF THE SAINT FRANCIS INDIANS
by Gordon Day
(This book is no longer available.)
National Museums of Canada
Paper No. 71
14. THE COWASSUCKS
Odanak seems to have maintained a steady state after its
and there was a considerable number of Indians on the
of the Saint Francis, Connecticut and Androscoggin Rivers.
According to Tufts,
a contemporary observer, there were some 700
Indians inhabiting small settlements
between Lake Mempremagog and Lake
The Indians of this region have been mentioned only incidentally in
this account, but at this point
they commence to play a larger role.
Their identity has hardly been considered seriously, and it will be
useful to review the little that is known of their history.
In 1628 the Mahicans were defeated by the Mohawks, and one band left
their home on the Hudson River. Historians have commonly thought that
they fled to the Connecticut River and resettled there. Crockett
speculated that these fugitives may have settled in the Cowas country
around Newbury, Vermont.
Re-examination of the original Dutch
account, however, makes it doubtful that they settled on the
Connecticut River at all, so there is no reason to assume that the
Cowassucks were Mahicans.
We have noted that the Indians of Cowas made their first definite
appearance in history
in the year 1704, and in this year there were
three separate statements regarding them.
In early June of that year
a delegation from Cowas appeared before Governor Vaudreuil at Quebec.
They had participated in the attack on Deerfield the preceding
February and had come to
Quebec at Vaudreuil's invitation to explain
why they preferred to remain at Cowas rather
than accept Vaudreuil's
invitation to take up lands in Canada.
The English had heard of their fort at Cowassuck and in May dispatched
a party from Northampton under Caleb Lyman. Almost while the
delegates were talking at Quebec, Lyman's party surprised an outlying
band some twenty miles south of Cowas, possibly in the vicinity of
present day Thetford, Vermont, and killed most of them. Lyman
thought that this brought about the permanent abandonment of the
Cowassuck fort. Shortly afterwards, Stephen Williams, who had been
captured at Deerfield and who had spent the winter with his captors
hunting in the hills on the Vermont side of the Connecticut, met some
Indians from Cowas who told his captors that the village was being
abandoned because of Lyman's attack. This must have been in late June
or early July, because William's party stayed where they were for four
to six weeks and arrived at Chambly in August. Stephen was given to a
Pentacook, one Sagamore George who was mentioned also by John
Williams, because his captor would not comply with the Catholic
rites. Stephen's first captor went to "Albany," presumably
Schaghticoke, and Sagamore George and his family also left Odanak in
the spring of 1705 because of small-pox there.
These early notices do not clearly identify the Cowassuck tribe for us
nor enlighten us about their movements after 1704. Were they a
distinct tribe or were they a band of upriver Sokwakis? Although they
might well have had their own tribal organization, I incline toward
the view that they were closely related to the Sokwakis by reason of
John Pynchon's statement that the Sokwakis lived at the head of the
Connecticut River. The "hoaz" who condoled with the Sokwakis after
the desperate Iroquois siege in 1663 and, together with the Penacooks,
sent them warriors to strengthen their defenses must have been a
closely related tribe, and the name resembles Cowas more than that of
any other neighboring tribe.
Was Coassuck an ancient location or was it a village created after
King Philip's War by refugees, perhaps Penacooks as has been
suggested? If my identification of the "hoaz" is correct, Cowassuck
was occupied at least by 1663. Was the 1704 abandonment of Cowassuck
followed by a withdrawal to Canada or merely to a location farther
upriver? Vaudreuil had repeated his invitation, suggesting the
Riviere Nicholas. Possibly the Riviere Nicolet was meant, but no
settlement was recorded on it. It may be doubted that they withdrew
to Odanak because a serious epidemic of smallpox had broken out there
in the winter of 1704-1705, and outside Indians were shunning the place.
A French map of 1713 showed a village on the west side of the upper
Connecticut River labeled"Koes, ancien village des loups". This
tells us that Cowas had been abandoned at some time and probably was
empty in 1713, since this map was made with the advice of Father
Aubery who was well posted on the shifting whereabouts of the tribes.
After the Treaty of Utrecht in the spring of 1713, many of the Indian
allies of the French desired to return to their former homes in
northern New England, and some did return to Pigwacket. It is likely
that Cowassuck was reoccupied in spite of previous land sales when the
English returned to resettle Northfield in 1714.
The records do not seem to give the Cowassucks any overt part in
Dummer's War, but we have an indication of their location in a
recommendation of Colonel John Stoddard to Governor Dummer in 1725. "Parties should be raised to go to the upper part of Saint Francis
river where these Indians [that is, the hostile Indians] plant their
corn, or twards the head of Connecticut river where they hunt, or to
Ammonoosuck which is the common road from St. Francis to
Ammeriscoggan, and so to the Eastern country, or to Gray Lock's fort,
or possibly to all of these." This shows that the English at least,
were not aware of any occupied village on the upper Connecticut
River. This is not sufficient
grounds for assuming that the
Cowassucks were then at Odanak. They may have been cultivating the
Upper Cowas Intervales about Lancaster, New Hampshire, or the smaller
intervales still farther upriver.
Evidence for the presence of Indians at Cowas after Dummer's War is
also lacking, and
the War of the Austrian Succession (1745-1748)
probably caused any Indians who may have been at the Lower Cowas to
retreat northward to the Upper Cowas or to the headwater streams. The
Lower Cowas could hardly have been secure, since scouts from the
Boscawen and Canterbury, New Hampshire, garrisons on the Merrimack
River were patrolling as far northward as the headwaters of the
After 1750 both the Indians and the English became anxious about
rumors that the other side was going to settle the Cowas region.
English concern centered around rumors in 1751 and 1754 that the
French were going to build a fort at "Coas", said to be only ninety
miles from Fort Dummer, the northern-most English fort. Similar
rumors about English intentions drifted north, and the Sokwakis
reasserted their claim to the Connecticut valley from Saint Francis.
Two subsequent events strongly suggest that the lower Cowas at least
was unoccupied at that time. In a conference held in Montreal in
1752, Atiwaneto [Jerome Atecouando] spoke for the Saint Francis
Indians, stated the Abenaki claim in no uncertain terms and threatened
that English occupation would be followed by war. The same year,
Indians attacked a beaver trapping party on the Baker River and
carried John Stark prisoner to Odanak. Stark's observations during
his captivity provided much of the information for the subsequent
cartography of the upper Connecticut region, and his report on the
fertile intervales of the Cowas country was probably instrumental in
attracting settlers to it after the Seven Years War. Whatever their
temporary location the Cowassucks had no idea that they had
surrendered their lands, and six delegates from Saint Francois went to
Charleston, New Hampshire (Fort No. 4), and warned that they would
view any attempt at settlement as a declaration of war. They added
that there were then four hundred Indians hunting south of the Riviere
Saint Francois and that the following spring all the Cowassucks would
be at Cowas to see whether settlement had commenced. This shows
clearly that the Cowassucks retained their identity and, wherever they
were, knew Cowas as their own place.
In 1954 just before the outbreak of the Seven Years War, Captain Peter
Powers led an expedition which ascended the Connecticut beyond
Lancaster, New Hampshire, without seeing any Indian village. In 1759
Rogers led the main body of his Rangers returning from Saint Francis
back by the Connecticut. They traveled the River from the mouth of
the Ammonoosuc down to Fort No. 4 without seeing a village, so it
seems likely that the upper Connecticut River was deserted for the
duration of this war, and the population may have been at Odanak.
During the Seven Years War, known to the English colonists as the last
French and Indian War, the tribes generally withdrew from locations
which were too exposed to English attacks. One group which favored
the English cause, however, retired no farther than the Clyde River in
East Charleston, Vermont, where they spent the nine years between the
outbreak of hostilities and the treaty of Paris in 1763 in a state on
neutrality. They moved to Canada, however, rather than moving at that
time to Cowas. This may have been the first Cowassuck contingent into
After the cessation of hostilities, the Indians returned as usual to
reoccupy their lands, but this time they encountered the first wave of
English settlers pushing northward into the Indians' old territory.
Believing that the conquest of New France had put an end once and for
all to the French threat, New Englanders felt safe in settling the
lands of the Indian allies of the French, and before the turn of the
century, advance settlements had pushed as far northward as the
present international boundary between Quebec and Vermont. For the
next decade or so, returning Indians and advancing English mingled in
frontier communities from Lake Champlain to the upper Androscoggin
River. This was the period which furnished the Indian traditions and
anecdotes for the local histories of the northern townships such as
Shelburne, Swanton, Newbury and Troy in Vermont and Freyburg and
Rumford in Maine. These traditions are scanty for most communities,
and sometimes that of one community has been presented by local
historians suspended inn a historical vacuum, as though it represented
the entire Indian legacy of the region. Assembled and interpreted
against the historical background just sketched, however, they form a
valuable contribution to our understanding of the last phase of
Indian occupation in northern New England.
We have seen that the Cowassucks were among those who returned to
their proper homes on the Lower Cowas between Newbury, Vermont, and
Haverhill, New Hampshire. Powers seems to say that when the Lower
Cowas was settled by the English in 1761 Indians were already in
residence. The Indians dwelt at this time on these meadows, east and
west of the river, and were amicable. The loss of their strong ally,
the French, and the chastisement which Rogers inflicted upon their
brethren at St. Francis, had cooled their ardor, and rendered the idea
of our men taking possession of those meadows far more acceptable to
them than it was in 1752." Elsewhere Powers stated, "But after the
old French war, there were some of the St. Francis tribe returned to
the Coos, and lived until a more recent date, when they became
In 1763 there were "about 30 Indians, some with families, who came in
with Hunts, chiefly to trade with Taplin according to Bayley. This
suggests some 150 Indians trading into Newbury, Vermont, and therefore
probably residing somewhere on the upper Connecticut. Farther south,
the town of Thetford, Vermont, was settled in 1764, and the settlers "found abundant evidence that this section of country had been
inhabited by a numerous tribe of Indians, previous to the war between
Great Britain and France, in 1756." A camp site was found in southern
part of town, but no Indians returned there.
The History of Our Corn
by Chief Nancy Millette Doucet
It is written throughout history about the Indians of the
Koas and planting of our corn in the meadows. Now with that said, the
corn was shared by the Indians to the settlers. Let's remind everyone
that here in the Koas the Jesuits came in 1675 and Christianity was
woven into our heritage. Not only were the Indians already pretty much
willing to be generous on their merits, but the influence of the
Jesuits became woven into our society.
Over the years the Greene Family kept the corn growing generation- after-generation
carefully safe guarding it from cross pollination. Later they shared the corn with
Sarah and Charlie Calley who grew it for over 35 years. Once I met the Calley's,
they gifted the corn back to me as Chief of the Koasek of the Koas Abenaki
and rightful owners of the Koasek Corn.
Now with all that said, we have shared our corn seed with others and
we have tried to instill that the corn must not be cross-pollinated.
This is a significant part of our history and is documented well
and an aspect that stands out in our heritage and culture.
Mission des Loupes
Mission des Loupes was a mission established in the Coos region around Newbury, VT
by the Jesuit priest/martyr,
Father Sebastian Râle.
Following is information about the mission:
Koas (also Coos or Coosuc) was located, according to P.-Andre Sevigny at the confluence of the Connecticut River and the Lower Ammonoosuc, what is now the town of Newbury, Vermont.The area was a popular rendezvous even after the village was abandoned since the Native Americans used to return to it to plant corn and to fish.
The Jesuits, like Sebastian Râle, even though he was centered at Norridgewock, roamed throughout the area of Canada and New England with the Native Americans.
In the case of the Jesuit Joseph Aubery (1673-1756), who drew the map with the missions on the rivers of New England, it seems that he at least visited there. Since Aubery refers to the mission
on his map as ancient, this certainly indicates that it was there before 1713, perhaps round 1675.
Since Jesuit missionaries paved the way for evangelization among the Native Americans as early as 1611 in Maine, one can presume that the Bigot brothers, Jacques (1651-1711) and Vincent (1649-1720), were at least familiar with it if they did not actually go there.
After the Native Americans from St. Francis raided Deerfield, Massachusetts in February of 1704, the inhabitants of Northampton, Massachsuetts retaliated on June 14 that year
by destroying Koas for the most part on. As for the move to the St. Francis River,
the Native Americans were already there when they had obtain that land back in the last quarter
of the seventeenth century. However, with the death of Father Râle in 1724, many flocked there as more did with the fall of Quebec In 1759.
It is written that the mission was a stockaded area and that it was not
a very large village like that at Norridgewock , the one on the St. Francis River in Canada,
which seems to have had about 500 residents at one time. In any case, given the association of Koas with the Native Americans on that river, there was a connection.
Following is a bibliography for the information written above.
They also serve as good resources for those wishing to do more research.
• Thomas M. Charland - Les Abenakis des Odanak published in Montreal in 1964
• P.-Andre Sevigny - Les Abenaquis: Habitat et migrations, 17e et 18e siecles
(Cahiers d'histoire des jesuites ; no 3) (French Edition)published in Montreal in 1976.
• Vincent A. Lapomarda - article, The Jesuit Missions of Colonial New England,
published by Essex Institute Historical Collections, volume 126, Number 2 (April 1990), 91-109.
• The following was taken from a homily given by Rev. Vincent A. Lapomarda, S.J.
The full homily can be found on the following website along with other
pertinant information about Sebatian Râle:
Rev. Vincent A. Lapomarda, S. J.
Preached at the Dedication of the Plaque
at St. Sebastian Church, Madison, Maine, on
23 August 1999
The details of the life of Sebastian Râle can be summarized very briefly. A native of Pontarlier, France, he was baptized on 28 January 1652 and joined the Society of Jesus on 24 September 1675. He came to America on 13 October 1689 and, after spending some time with the native Americans in Illinois (1692-95) and at Becancour (1705-11) in Canada, he lived most of his life among the Abenakis of what is now the State of Maine. This was a period when England and France were engaged in a struggle for the control of North America. In that struggle, which was a religious as well as a political conflict, Father Râle incurred the wrath of the English who placed a price on his head because he kept the native Americans loyal to the French centered in Quebec, as they maintained a defensive perimeter of forts on the rivers between New England and New France. Determined to stand by his flock, the native Americans of the Kennebec River Valley, and to defend their rights while caring for their pastoral needs and nurturing their religious beliefs and practices, Râle was cut down at his mission in Norridgewock, Maine, on 23 August 1724, as he defended his Abenaki flock with his life. This caused his enemies throughout the region to rejoice at the death of this most famous Jesuit in colonial New England.
The Koasek Were Not the Same as the Odanak
The Cowasucks Refuse Refuge 1704
Withdrawal, and even migration, was a common Abenaki response to military danger and the disruption of war. Many Abenakis followed well-worn paths to mission villages in Canada, where the French welcomed them with open arms. In 1704, Governor Vaudreuil invited several tribes to resettle on the St. Lawrence where they could enjoy French protection against the English. Some bands accepted, but the Cowasucks preferred to stay and fight in their homeland. The same month that the Cowasuck delegates were declining Vaudreuil's offer, Caleb Lyman was leading his expedition against their village.
Speech of the Abenaki Indians of Cowasuck
to the Governor-General, 13 June 1704
"Father, to tell the truth you have shown great care for me in inviting me to come and settle on your lands. However, I cannot bring myself to come there because the English have already struck me too hard. I believe, therefore, that the only place where I can strike back against the English is the place I come from, which is called Cowasuck. I could not do that easily if I was in your country. (Presented a wampum belt.) Father, hear me, I wish to remain at Cowasuck. It is true you have acted well in offering me a fort on your lands, and that would have been good if we had been at peace as we used to be, and we could have done it easily. But hear me, I am a warrior. I offer you my village which is like a fort thrust towards the enemy, so that your lands on this side can be protected, and so that you can think of me as "my child who is at Cowasuck to carry on the war and protect me, serving as a palisade against my enemies.""
National Archives of Canda, MG1 F3, vol. 2:407-10; editor's translation. The above was taken from Dawnland Encounters, Indians and Europeans in Northern New England
Edited by Colin G. Calloway; pp. 151-152, (c) 1991 by University Press of New England.
Bethlehem NH Indians...found in a book from 1800's
Following is some information, shared by Elie Joubert, regarding some history found in a book of the 1800's regarding
the native people from the area around Bethlehem, NH. Evidently, Elie is clarifying some of
the information that was written in the book.
The Indians of New Hampshire were known to us as the Ahômonoik (Eel people). They traveled parts of the Connecticut and the length of the Ammonoosuk River.They were also know as Quick Campers. They left hidden totems at their abandoned camp grounds depicting bones of animals and fish, feathers of birds, leaves of eatable plants, and various medicines they used while on their short stay at that location.
They used the Ammonoosuk trails and river to travel east to west and back.
The Ahômonoik Indians fearing for their existence joined in with larger groups of the Wôbanaki tribes scatter throughout the White Mountains area. Ammonoosuc means "Eel River" not "narrow fishing river." Anything having to do with the word "narrow" would have
the prefix of "wasa" or "waza"" in the Wôbanaaki language. I will say it again,
'Within the Wôbanaki language lies the secrets to our culture." So to bring an end to my story, the Ahômomnoik had to make a decisions as to which way to turn to assimilate with the settlers or join forces with larger Wôbanaki tribes.
Now I can go with "Sunrise land, Eastern land, and Dawn Land, but "land the sun first bathes in light" is stretching it! .. too far. I thank the Great Spirit that we have oral traditions passed on to us by our Elders. This writer does not know what he is talking about. Did you know that at one time the Iroquois were members of the Wôbanaki Confederation?
I know the settlement of Bethlehem, NH had a problem in grazing their animals when they first settled in Bethlehem, NH. The Ahômonoik Indians bartered with the settlement for cows they would find in the woods. Thus began the assimilation into the Bethlehem Settlement.
Quit a different historical story then than given by the of Bethlehem settlement?
The Coos (Pine Tree Place)
Our name, Koasek, is a variation of the name "Coos." Following is some history that mentions the name "Coos," which is an area in Vermont and New Hampshire. The Assembly of New Hampshire began the process of cutting and making a road from the settlements upon the Merrimack to the "Coos Meadows." The Abenaki sent six Indians with a flag of truce into the Fort at Number Four. The Abenaki held their ground on the subject. They told Capt. Stevens that they were displeased "at our peoples going to take a view of the Coos Meadows last spring" (spring of 1752,) and that "for the English to settle Cowos was what they could not agree to; and as the English had no need of that land, but had enough without it, they must think the English had a mind for war if they should go there," and that they should "have a strong war."
Louis Annance 1794 - 1875
Famous Abenaki Trapper and Guide
Louis Annance, pronounced (loo-ee), the famous guide of Maine, was born in St.Francois, Canada, August 25th, 1794. He was the son of Francois Annance and Marie Joseph, also from St.Francois, (Odanak).
In 1805, he was sent to Hanover, New Hampshire to attend the preparatory school at Dartmouth. Several Abenaki boys had been sent there for their education, including Louis' father and brother. With the War of 1812 looming, Louis left the school to fight along with his fellow Abenaki. Knowing three languages, English, French and his native tongue, he served as an interpreter. He was loyal to the British and received commendations for bravery . His brother, Francois (Noel) Annance, was in charge of all of the Abenaki soldiers during the war. Noel went on to join the Northwest Co. and then the Hudson's Bay Co. after the war.
In 1817, Louis married Margeurite Guillman. Together they had three children, Margeurite Louisa - b.1819, Louis Napoleon - b.1822 and Edouard - b..1829. They were all baptized at St.Francois.
About 1819, Louis renounced the Catholic faith and joined the Congregationalists. . He stated, "I am going to the place of my forefathers, " and the family removed themselves from Odanak. They travelled to the lakes of Western Maine and later to Lancaster, New Hampshire. Here, he connected himself with the Methodists and was a member of one of their churches. He also united with the Masonic order , and was made a master mason at North Star Lodge of Lancaster in 1834. Being the first Abenaki , and one of the first Native Americans to join the fraternity. The secretary of North Star Lodge, in a communication to Albert F. Jackson, master of Doric Lodge of Monson, Maine, under the date November 3, 1876, writes that,"some of our oldest members
recollect Brother Annance, who was made a mason here, and say they have sat in a lodge with him."
In a Bicentennial Sketchbook , (1764-1964) of Lancaster it is written, In later years there were several Indians in the town, one of whom, Louis Annance, lived in the old manner, on the bank of the Israels River about a mile above the bridge. He kept a tame moose, and may have been the inspiration for the character of Tomah in D.P. Thompson's novel' " The Trappers of Umbagog", the plot of which follows closly the details of an actual murder.
The early histories of Andover and Rangeley, Maine, also tell stories of Louis Annance. At Squire Rangeley's Township, in 1825, there were Indians living at Indian rock, among them old Metallak, a great friend of the whites, and Louis Annance, described as " a good Christian man." A bad Indain was Bill Williams, who lived on the lakeshore and troubled early settlers and threatened their lives. He had a squaw and two children. One day in winter, they came back from a trip down the lake with only one child and when questioned, the squaw said, "I could only carry one,
and Bill wouldn't carry
the other, so he took him by the hair of the head and shook him until he died." Bill was later killed by the Indians themselves.
About 1840, the 'Big Indian' was Louis Annance . He lived with his aged sister and two nephews. They occupied a log cabin on the road to what later was Abram (Abraham) Ross' farm and Nathaniel Toothaker's farm overlooking the lake. It was this family of Abenaki who taught the pioneer farming stock the ways of the woods and lakes, as well as Indian lore of the region.
"The Cultured Indian"
There had been in the early days of the white settlers, Indian trappers about the lakes. Jerome and Elijah Wazamimet and their uncle Louis Annance, who was educated at Dartmouth. Louis Annance, always retained his Indian wild life tastes and returned to the lake country to hunt
with his Abenaki brothers. Many are buried in the Cupsuptic woods near the mouth of the Kennebago stream.
Greenville, Maine about 1840
Louis Annance had never lost his love for the wilderness. With many trips from New Hampshire to Maine, he was captivated by the solitude and beauty of the Moosehead Lake region. About 1840,
he moved his family to the region. Walter Creegan, editor for "The Northern" for many years, gathered information about Old Louis from the residents of Greenville. He writes, Mr. Shaw states that "Louis Annance was well known and respected by the townspeople. He was a tall man , straight, broad-shouldered, copper-colored, and athletic in his makup. He was one of the St..Francis Indians that Thoreau met on his trip to the region in 1857. Louis stated that "Thoreau did not know the first thing about building a canoe. He spoke pure english, french and his indian language. He was a great reader and an easy speaker and although he lived in the solitude of the wilderness, he could sit down with an educated person and converse with him on almost any subject."
Lucius Hubbard , whose frequent visits to the Maine woods resulted in the best map ever made,
remembered that "Louis lived in a cabin on the shore of the cove east of Kineo House in 1870. He worked as a guide, hunter, trapper and was the butcher of Greenville for many years. Louis smoked a mixture of tobacco and the bark of the squawbush, half and half, and in his later years, the children of town would gather it for him as a treat."
Louis passed on December 25, 1875 and is burried under a cedar tree in the Greenville cemetery. His headstone was erected the fourth day of October in 1876 by his brother master masons and the services were conducted by the Doric Lodge of Monson, under a dispensation granted by Albert Moore, grand master of the Grand Lodge of Maine, September 30, 1876. It is unknown when Louis' wife passed on and it is said that she was burried on one of the islands at the lake.
John F.Sprague, who sat with Old Louis and heard him tell his life story a year before he passed on, read the following before the Maine Historical Society wrote, "He was a man of marked natural ability and superior intelligence, and was noted for his kind and generous disposition, his genial and pleasant manners, unimpeachable integrity and strict morality. While possessing all of these traits of a noble and refined manhood, he, at the same time, always retained the natural instincts and peculiarities of his race; for he loved the lone hunting grounds of his fathers, and devoted many autumns and winters to the adventurous hunt and exciting chase.
Learn more about Abenaki history. The following links
have some very good information and are
excellent resources for teachers and learners . . .
• PowerPoint Presentation by the New Hampshire Historical Society
• The Flow of History - Teaching Abenaki History and Culture: Unit Frame
• The Flow of History - Teaching Abenaki History and Culture: Essays
• The Flow of History - Teaching Abenaki History and Culture: Timeline
• The Flow of History - Teaching Abenaki History and Culture: Lessons
• The Flow of History - Teaching Abenaki History & Culture: Online Interactives
• Link to more teacher resources
• For Teachers and Learners: Native Americans of New Hampshire